Articles techniques

System integration of baseplate cooled converter modules, or ‘bricks’

Baseplate cooled power converter modules, also known as bricks, provide building block power solutions for integration into end equipment.

Power Systems for Patient- Connected Equipment

This paper discusses two approaches for power systems within medical equipment for patient-connected applications. The part of the equipment that comes into contact with the patient is known as the ‘applied part’. The applied part is defined as the par...

Digital power – challenges and opportunities for power designs

Digital power has experienced rapid growth over the last five years taking advantage of the many benefits that digital control can bring to a traditionally analog domain. The increasing adoption of digital control has been supported by the many new pro...

Power Systems for Medical Equipment Must Ensure Patient Safety

A fundamental tenet of medical electrical equipment that comes into contact with patients is that it must be safe to use, both for the patient and the operator. Consequently, there are rigorous standards that apply to such medical equipment, which enta...

Safety of Household and Similar Electrical Appliances – How EN 60335 Compares

When designing to meet the requirements of EN 60335, engineers have to adopt a different mind-set. Compared with the familiar IT and medical standards, not only are some design limits different but also the potential users and end products are much mor...

Standard high voltage modules save time, space and money

System power designers specifying high voltage power supplies have three basic options: (i) specify, manage and procure a custom supply from a third-party supplier; (ii) design, manage and manufacture either in-house or via a contract manufacturer; or ...

Updates to Legislation Drive External Power Supplies’ Efficiency

As concern for carbon emissions grows, most countries have introduced legislation to regulate the efficiency of external power supplies (EPS), so that as little as possible of our natural resource is wasted

Designing for reliability in high voltage applications

High voltage design and manufacturing comes with an additional set of disciplines that must be applied in order to produce products with excellent long term reliability, often in harsh environments

Selecting power supplies for peak load applications

Specifying an AC/DC power supply for systems with peak load requirements that are higher than the normal power requirements for short periods can result in larger, higher power and higher cost product selection

Electrolytic Capacitor Lifetime in Power Supplies

The service life of electrolytic capacitors is an increasingly key design parameter in power supplies

Hints and tips on the use of cooling fans for power supplies

Thermal management of modern power supplies is becoming increasingly important due to smaller heat sinks volumes and higher power densities

Energy efficiency for external power supplies (EPS)

Controlling the power consumed by external power supplies is important for continuity of the energy supply and reduction of environmental impacts

Overcoming Patient Leakage Current Issues

Patient leakage current and ways of reducing and controlling it

An engineers guide to selecting power supplies for LED lighting applications

Traditionally, lighting comprised some form of incandescent, fluorescent or halogen lamps. That has changed with the ever increasing popularity of light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Understanding Efficiency: Looking for the worst-case scenario

It’s standard practice to put the best-case scenario on data sheets, but how does that differ from the efficiency that can actually be achieved in your application?

Power supply de-rating in practice

In recent years it has become commonplace for some manufacturers to increase the power rating of the product and specify derating

Reliability in Electronics (276 KB)

Understanding reliability in electronics.

Putting the case for custom power supplies in low to medium volume applications (320 KB)

The specification you need, not the one that happens to be available.

Power Supplies in Medical Electronics (284 KB)

Explanation of medical power supply design and applications.

Powering Communications in Harsh Environments (272 KB)

Designing for reliability in sealed enclosures.

Power Factor (304 KB)

Notes on parallel and series operation.

Parallel & Series Operation (256 KB)

Notes on parallel and series operation.

Lightning Transients (160 KB)

Information regarding transients.

Input Considerations (176 KB)

A guide to input voltage, input current, power factor and selecting fuses.

Common Power Supply Topologies (248 KB)

A brief description of the three most common switched mode power technologies.

An innovative topology for 24 hour turnaround of custom configured PSUs (288 KB)

A different approach to solving individual system power requirements.

Eliminating snubber circuits in AC-DC power supplies (332 KB)

Implementing silicon carbide diode in PFC boost controllers.

MTBF: misquoted and misunderstood (280 KB)

Important factors when comparing quoted MTBF.

The ever shrinking power supply (400 KB)

Factors driving down the size of AC-DC power supplies.

Shrinking to the challenge - how to a smaller, more efficient AC-DC power supply (288 KB)

Creating smaller power supplies without compromising the efficiency or functionality.

How to reduce size and increase performance in AC-DC power supply design (404 KB)

Design ideas that make a difference to power supply performance.

No load power consumption and efficiency of external power supplies (192 KB)

Summary of requirements for no load power consumption and minimum efficiency by various international regulatory bodies.

Fractional turns transformers (FTT) save space, cut costs and improve efficiency of AC-DC power supplies (284 KB)

Implementing fractional turns in power converters

Ten tips for designing small and efficient AC-DC switching power supplies (350 KB)

Top ten design tips from VP of Engineering, Hiren Shah

Understanding forced air cooling in power supplies (376 KB)

Reducing waste heat from power supplies

Peaks and Valleys (216 KB)

Selecting power supplies for high peak currents

XP Tips and Tricks (388 KB)

There's no substitute for experience... but you can pass it on!

Putting the data into power supply data sheets (320 KB)

A review of typical AC-DC power supply datasheets

Medical power supplies: trends, challenges and design approaches (364 KB)

Techniques for managing design trade-offs

95% High efficiency power supply changes the way high reliability systems are designed (768 KB)

95% Efficient AC/DC Power Supply

Hi-pot Type Testing Application Note (256 KB)

Providing an insight into 'type' testing of power supplies

Energy Efficiency of Component Power Supplies (160 KB)

A look at energy efficiency within component power supplies

Third edition of medical safety standards (312 KB)

Medical safety standard impacts on power supply selection

Understanding AC/DC power supply efficiency (328 KB)

Efficiency in smaller power supplies

Pushing the limits of AC/DC power system design (524 KB)

Meeting the demands of medial applications

Driving AC-DC power supply efficiency even higher (320 KB)

Reducing the size and improving the efficiency of AC-DC power supplies

Powering Communications in harsh environments (244 KB)

The reliability of communications equipment in harsh environments

Digital Signals and Controls (336 KB)

Digital signals and controls are in increasing demand

IEC60601 - understanding the changes from 2nd to 3rd edition (229 KB)

Outlining the changes to the medical industry standard.

Getting More for Less (328 KB)

Examining the power efficiency of medical electronic equipment in a typical European hospital.